Nigeria's Foreign Affairs from Independence in 1960 to Global Era...What went Wrong? – Grace ESHIET
Nigeria's Foreign Affairs from Independence in 1960 to Global Era...What went Wrong?
Nigeria's Foreign Affairs From Independence in 1960 to Global Era...What Went Wrong?
Abstract:In every region of the world, pivotal states with geo-strategic advantage to determine the direction of events, actions and shape arrangements regionally and continentally take the lead. They adopt soft and hard strategies-aid, grants, diplomacy-economic and public, security, etc. in their relationships and interactions and also have critical say on issues relating to development and peace of the region (Sevin, 2015). Such powers played critical roles in establishing organizations like NATO, European Union, the United Nations Organization-UN, etc. (Dokubo and Oluwwadare, 2011). Such was Nigeria's role after independence from British control in October 1960. Between 1950's to early 1990's, black African nations were embroiled in liberation struggles. Most black States were under severe colonial subjugation and achieved independence through bloodshed and severe clampdown. Countries like Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe were not liberated until the 1980's while South Africa followed after Nelson Mandela's release from prison in 1990. Many African states were faced with certain expertise and resources gap to advance as independent states which created a need for stronger nations' support. Within this period, Nigeria's journey to independence was smooth in comparison, with less bloodshed and confrontation. Nigeria also had the resources which placed her in position to assist. At this point in history, Nations across the world were adopting modernization concept of development to achieve social and economic changes in postcolonial world and post-World War 11. Many developed States adopted the strategy to push developing states and former colonies to economic growth (Jiafeng, 2009:73). Today, it comes in form of development assistance. However, this was not the case in Africa as many of the colonial powers adopted different exit strategy from their colonies. It was in this weak state that Nigeria's first Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa declared at the UN in 1960 that: "So far I have concentrated on the problems of Africa. Please do not think we are not interested in the problems of the rest of the world; we are intensely interested in them and hope to be allowed to assist in finding solutions to them through this organisation, but being human we are naturally concerned first with what affects our immediate neighbours. On the question of colonialism and racial discrimination, I am afraid that we in Nigeria will never compromise" (Nwanole and Iwoha,2012:76) The statement demonstrates that Nigeria placed African unity, Africa and black Nations at the centre of her foreign policy. As averred by McGillivray and White (1993) that aid is an instrument of foreign policy, Nigeria, under military and civilian regimes used untied financial aid, human capital support and propaganda as her foreign policy tool to fight apartheid, racism and colonialism. Nigeria played key role in formation of the Economic Community of West African States-ECOWAS and led in establishing and funding the ECOWAS Ceasefire (Peace) Monitoring Group-ECOMOG which was employed to tackle the conflicts that engulfed Western Africa in 1990s to early 2000. Nigeria established Nigerian Technical Aid Corp, including Nigerian Trust Fund and Technical Development Cooperation Fund to support African Development Bank in assisting African countries in need and has been involved in many peace-support operations since 1960. Nigeria's influence and commitment was widely recognised and acknowledged as one who can dominate and lay claim to supremacy in black Africa. However, in an era of increased cooperation, when many countries are positioning themselves as part of global decision-making architecture like BRICS, Nigeria's influence has declined. The study therefore seeks to establish what led to this decline, which military or civilian regime contributed to the decline and establish the link between development aid and foreign policy …víceméně
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- Vedoucí: Mgr. Petra Měšťánková, Ph.D.
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ESHIET, Grace. Nigeria's Foreign Affairs from Independence in 1960 to Global Era...What went Wrong?. Olomouc, 2018. diplomová práce (Mgr.). UNIVERZITA PALACKÉHO V OLOMOUCI. Přírodovědecká fakulta
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UNIVERZITA PALACKÉHO V OLOMOUCIPřírodovědecká fakulta
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Geography / International Development Studies
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