Mgr. Štěpán Kalousek
Právní úprava držení zbraní v 18. a 19. století
Legal Regulation of the Possession of Arms in 18th. and 19th. Century
Anotace: Tato práce se zaměřuje na problematiku právní úpravy držení zbraní v 18. a 19. století na našem území. To bylo ve sledovaném období součástí habsburské monarchie, proto je nutno sledované jevy vnímat v poněkud širším měřítku. Po úvodu do problematiky se tato práce věnuje terminologickému vymezení klíčových pojmů, zejména se zaměřuje na chápání pojmu zbraň v jeho mnoha významech. Dále je práce vnitřně členěna na kapitoly, z nichž první se zabývá časovým úsekem mezi lety 1700 a 1848, druhá pak obdobím druhé poloviny 19. století. Každá kapitola je uvedena stručnou charakteristikou příslušné epochy z hlediska obecného politického vývoje, právního řádu, vývoje veřejné správy a bezpečnostních složek monarchie. Poté následuje část věnovaná vlastní právní regulaci držení, nošení a používání zbraní. Ta je z důvodu delšího časového úseku, který zpracovává, rozdělena u kapitoly III. na dílčí pododdíly, nichž první je věnován úvodním desetiletím 18. století, druhý se zabývá epochou tereziánských a josefínských reforem a třetí zpracovává dobu tzv. policejního absolutismu ( 1790 – 1848 ). V kapitole IV. se potom v centru naší pozornosti nachází patent č. 223/1852 ř. z., označovaný jako zbrojní patent, který je naprosto klíčovým předpisem z hlediska sledované právní úpravy. Při bádání v této oblasti jsem se opíral zejména o dobové právní předpisy, a dále také o slovníkovou a encyklopedickou literaturu z tohoto období. Hlavním cílem této práce by mělo být vytvoření základu pro další bádání v oblasti historie právní regulace zbraní, neboť se jedná o téma současnou českou literaturou opomíjené. Doufám, že tedy touto prací poskytnu případným zájemcům alespoň základní informace k dané problematice.
Abstract: This thesis focuses on the sphere of the legal settlement of the possession of weapons in the 18th and 19th century on the territory of Habsburg monarchy. This topic has not been covered by modern Czech literature, so this essay should make a basis for further research in this area. Few books, which deal with this subject, do not cover it properly and bring some misunderstandings that can confuse prospective researchers. For this reason I had to direct my explorations to older sources, in which effort I have to appreciate the Library of National Archives (Knihovna národního archivu). Apart from legal regulations of the relevant period I owe help to the publication by Maxmilian Obertrant Alphabetisches Handbuch der öffentlichen Verwaltung in Bezug auf praktische Polizei und Landeskultur, published in Prague in 1843. There are also few dictionaries and public administration handbooks from the end of 19th century that contain references to this subject and were very helpful during my research. Because many of the older sources were in German I had to do some translations as well. The time period covered in this thesis was essential for the life of Danube monarchy. From the absolutistic feudal conglomerate of territories under the rule of Habsburg dynasty it became a modern state of law with highly developed system of public administration and security forces. In the beginning of the 18th century the monarchy was a feudal anachronism with its roots deep in the Middle Ages. Centralization processes that had started in the previous century had not yet brought expected results and the state of internal administration and security was pitiful. More improvement was reached in the era of reforms which were carried out under the rule of Empress Maria Theresia and her son Joseph II. ( 1740 – 1790 ). The following period is often called police absolutism and is sometimes linked with the personality of Prince Metternich, the state chancellor. It was marked with fear from the French revolution, which led to an enforcement of internal supervision and also to the series of unsuccessful military campaigns in so called Coalitional wars. In these military clashes with revolutionary and Napoleonic France, Austria lost part of its territory and was humiliated and demoted to an international power of only regional importance. Franz II., Emperor of the Holy German Empire was forced to abandon his title in case of disintegration of this state form. He adopted the new title of Austrian Emperor that was used by his descendants until the fall of the monarchy in 1918. Austria restored its position as a major power after the Congress of Vienna in 1814 – 1815. The peaceful years ended in 1848 when the whole Europe was shaken by the turmoil of revolution. In Austria it brought the abolishment of feudal system and promotion of citizen principle. The idea of constitutional monarchy was firstly introduced in that year but it was turned down by the conservative forces after the suppression of revolutionary movement. Next decade is called the era of neo-absolutism and is characterized by strong police supervision and dense censorship. These conditions were considered as unbearable after the Austrian defeat in the war with Sardinia and France in 1859. Emperor Franz Joseph I. was compelled to accept the constitutional system, which was arranged by the February Constitution in 1862. In 1866 Austria was defeated once again in the war against Prussia, which events enabled Hungarian nationalists to enforce their demands on autonomy. The monarchy then became a personal union and was named Austro-Hungarian Empire. This essay focuses first of all on the definition of the term “weapon” in its different meanings, then it explains other important terms like possession, bearing and using of weapons and also the legal system of the Habsburg monarchy. Next part of the thesis is divided into two chapters; the first one covers the miscellaneous period between years 170
Abstract: 0 and 1848, the second one aims at the era of the second half of the 19th century. Each part introduces the Habsburg monarchy in relevant period, shows its legal system, public administration and security forces and then it focuses on the legal settlement of the possession of weapons, their bearing and using. Some other related questions are also mentioned in the text, like using of weapons by armed forces of the monarchy. In the first decades of the 18th century the Danube monarchy had only small and ineffective system of public administration. Also the regulation of possession of arms was poor during this period. Few rules that mentioned weapons were mainly focused on different problems like poaching and public security in Vienna. Some progress was achieved under the rule of Maria Theresia and her son Joseph II. In the half of the 18th century, the Vienna police corps was reformed and in reference to that a rule was published that prohibited bearing of treacherous weapons. State power also tried to set limits to using of legally kept weapons by publishing rules to maintain safety during hunts and public celebrations. In the era of police absolutism, the prohibition of treacherous and in other ways perfidious weapons was repeatedly settled. Some regulations were also put down on the using of service weapons by armed forces of the monarchy (for example the Border Patrol, later Financial Guard). The legal regulation of this subject in years 1700 – 1848 can be considered as liberal but inconsistent. The rules settled by these regulations were not always obeyed by the population and it was sometimes difficult for the state power to secure the obedience. The legislators did not consider with the exact legal determination of possession of common weapons, but they limited the subject of regulation to the prohibition of treacherous weapons and some other violent and dangerous ways of dealing with weapons. In order to the revolution in 1848 the social circumstances in Austria had changed so considerably that the government had to react. Whole legal system was rebuilt in order to respect the citizen rights. In the early 50´s the pivotal act discussing the possession of weapons was published. This patent No. 223/1854 is a first modern law focusing on this topic. It stated the law of every citizen to keep weapons with the exception of the treacherous and perfidious ones, for which the owner and producer had to receive administrative permission. The right to bear arms was committed to administrative permission in form of weapon passport (permit). This act also sets the rules for craftsmen and tradesmen dealing with weapons based on the system of licenses. The regulation of possession and bearing of arms in the 18th and 19th century in Habsburg monarchy came a long way from brief acts discussing related problems to a modern legal settlement of this subject. The main contribution of this thesis lays in the creation of the basis for further research in this topic, which is unjustly ignored by modern Czech historiography.
Klíčová slova: zbraň, držení zbraní, nošení zbraní, použití zbraně, 18. a 19. století, zakázané zbraně, zbrojní patent, weapons, arms, possession of arms, bearing of arms, treacherous weapons
Jazyk práce: čeština