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Adolescents’ and emerging adults’ attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS and their risk perception of HIV – Violeta Zefi, MSc

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Masarykova univerzita

Fakulta sociálních studií

Doktorský studijní program / obor:
Psychologie (čtyřleté) / Sociální psychologie (angl.)

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Violeta Zefi, MSc

Disertační práce

Adolescents’ and emerging adults’ attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS and their risk perception of HIV

Adolescents’ and emerging adults’ attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS and their risk perception of HIV

Anotace: AIDS is considered as one of the most dangerous and incurable diseases of the modern society. Except health issues, HIV implicates social, cultural and psychological causes and consequences as well. According to World Health Organization (WHO) it is estimated that half of the world’s HIV infection is found among the adolescents and emerging adults between 15 and 24 years of age. This study aims to fill the lack of the existing data by examining the Kosovar adolescents and emerging adults regarding HIV and AIDS, especially on issues of their attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS, knowledge and risk perception of HIV. Kosovo has one of the youngest populations in Europe. The young men and women younger than 25 years old represent 49% of the whole population in Kosovo, while 19.1% of young people are under the age of 15-24. Although the prevalence of HIV is low, if not prevented at early stages, Kosovo has specific elements that may lead to the incensement of the scale of the epidemic of HIV. As an economically underdeveloped country with the highest unemployment rate in Europe and with few opportunities for development in many aspects, young people aged 18-25 years increasingly face particular challenges that can lead to increased exposure and susceptibility to HIV. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes towards people living with HIV and risk perception of HIV in correlation with socio-cultural aspects among adolescents and emerging adults in Kosovo. To collect data, the sequential explanatory mixed method design was used, where the quantitative phase was used for collecting data on the level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes towards people living with HIV and risk perception of HIV. Whereas, focus group discussions were used to deeply analyze socio-cultural correlations with level of knowledge, risk perception of HIV and attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS, in order to get a better understanding of the issue. In addition, the idea is to confront these data (qualitative data) with the data obtained from the quantitative analysis among adolescents and emerging adults. In total 1234 (N=1234) subjects were part of a self-administered and self-reporting questionnaire. Adolescents from 13 to 18 (N= 384 or 31.0%) years old and emerging adults from 19 to 25 (N=850 or 68.7%) years old were part of the questionnaire. In terms of gender distribution, 67.1% (N=828) were females and 32.9% (N=406) were males, while, residing in urban areas were 60.3% (N=744) of subjects, and in the rural areas were 39.6% (N=489) of subjects. Although, there were four focus group discussions organized from two target groups: adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, between seven to eight subjects were part of each of the focus group discussions. Results from quantitative and qualitative analysis show a satisfactory level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS among the adolescents and emerging adults in Kosovo. In addition, there are still misconceptions about HIV and AIDS. For instance, 20.9% of subjects agree that you can get infected with HIV through social contacts that you have in everyday life (handshakes, hugs etc.). Emerging adults and female subjects have a higher level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS compared with adolescents and male subjects. In addition, other socio-demographic characteristics of subjects such as: age group, monthly income, educational level of subjects and urban residence were found to be significant predictors of knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Attitudes of subjects towards people living with HIV and AIDS were tolerant and positive. Findings show that emerging adults and female subjects have more positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS compared with adolescents and male subjects. Other socio-demographic characteristics of subjects such as age group, mothers’ level of education and subjects’ educational level was found as a si

Anotace: gnificant predictor of positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. However, stigmatizing attitudes have also been reported towards people living with HIV and AIDS. In this regard, 56.3% of all subjects are not ready to eat from the same plate with a person who lives with HIV and AIDS and 48.6 % of all subjects disagree with the idea that a health worker who is infected with HIV and AIDS should be allowed to continue to work with patients. Result showed that male perceive more the risk of getting infected with HIV compared with female, while between emerging adults and adolescents there is no statistically significant difference on perceiving risk of getting infected with HIV. Furthermore, 46.5% of female and male subjects declared that “there is no risk at all” of getting infected with HIV; 29.9% declared that there is a “small risk”; 11.9% declared that there is an “average risk” and 4.7% declared a “high risk” of getting infected with HIV. Therefore, the perception of risk towards HIV and AIDS in both target groups, adolescent and emerging adults, is low.

Abstract: AIDS is considered as one of the most dangerous and incurable diseases of the modern society. Except health issues, HIV implicates social, cultural and psychological causes and consequences as well. According to World Health Organization (WHO) it is estimated that half of the world’s HIV infection is found among the adolescents and emerging adults between 15 and 24 years of age. This study aims to fill the lack of the existing data by examining the Kosovar adolescents and emerging adults regarding HIV and AIDS, especially on issues of their attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS, knowledge and risk perception of HIV. Kosovo has one of the youngest populations in Europe. The young men and women younger than 25 years old represent 49% of the whole population in Kosovo, while 19.1% of young people are under the age of 15-24. Although the prevalence of HIV is low, if not prevented at early stages, Kosovo has specific elements that may lead to the incensement of the scale of the epidemic of HIV. As an economically underdeveloped country with the highest unemployment rate in Europe and with few opportunities for development in many aspects, young people aged 18-25 years increasingly face particular challenges that can lead to increased exposure and susceptibility to HIV. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes towards people living with HIV and risk perception of HIV in correlation with socio-cultural aspects among adolescents and emerging adults in Kosovo. To collect data, the sequential explanatory mixed method design was used, where the quantitative phase was used for collecting data on the level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes towards people living with HIV and risk perception of HIV. Whereas, focus group discussions were used to deeply analyze socio-cultural correlations with level of knowledge, risk perception of HIV and attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS, in order to get a better understanding of the issue. In addition, the idea is to confront these data (qualitative data) with the data obtained from the quantitative analysis among adolescents and emerging adults. In total 1234 (N=1234) subjects were part of a self-administered and self-reporting questionnaire. Adolescents from 13 to 18 (N= 384 or 31.0%) years old and emerging adults from 19 to 25 (N=850 or 68.7%) years old were part of the questionnaire. In terms of gender distribution, 67.1% (N=828) were females and 32.9% (N=406) were males, while, residing in urban areas were 60.3% (N=744) of subjects, and in the rural areas were 39.6% (N=489) of subjects. Although, there were four focus group discussions organized from two target groups: adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, between seven to eight subjects were part of each of the focus group discussions. Results from quantitative and qualitative analysis show a satisfactory level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS among the adolescents and emerging adults in Kosovo. In addition, there are still misconceptions about HIV and AIDS. For instance, 20.9% of subjects agree that you can get infected with HIV through social contacts that you have in everyday life (handshakes, hugs etc.). Emerging adults and female subjects have a higher level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS compared with adolescents and male subjects. In addition, other socio-demographic characteristics of subjects such as: age group, monthly income, educational level of subjects and urban residence were found to be significant predictors of knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Attitudes of subjects towards people living with HIV and AIDS were tolerant and positive. Findings show that emerging adults and female subjects have more positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS compared with adolescents and male subjects. Other socio-demographic characteristics of subjects such as age group, mothers’ level of education and subjects’ educational level was found as a si

Abstract: gnificant predictor of positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. However, stigmatizing attitudes have also been reported towards people living with HIV and AIDS. In this regard, 56.3% of all subjects are not ready to eat from the same plate with a person who lives with HIV and AIDS and 48.6 % of all subjects disagree with the idea that a health worker who is infected with HIV and AIDS should be allowed to continue to work with patients. Result showed that male perceive more the risk of getting infected with HIV compared with female, while between emerging adults and adolescents there is no statistically significant difference on perceiving risk of getting infected with HIV. Furthermore, 46.5% of female and male subjects declared that “there is no risk at all” of getting infected with HIV; 29.9% declared that there is a “small risk”; 11.9% declared that there is an “average risk” and 4.7% declared a “high risk” of getting infected with HIV. Therefore, the perception of risk towards HIV and AIDS in both target groups, adolescent and emerging adults, is low.

Keywords: adolescents, emerging adults, HIV and AIDS, knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, Kosovo.

Jazyk práce: angličtina

Obhajoba závěrečné práce

  • Obhajoba proběhla 11. 7. 2017
  • Vedoucí: prof. PhDr. Petr Macek, CSc.
  • Oponent: prof. Moshe Landsman, prof. Mgr. Andrea Madarasová Gecková, Ph.D.

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