Intimate partner violence among university students in Kosovo and its correlates: exploring violence socialization and approval of violence – Kaltrina Kelmendi, M.A., Ph.D.

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Kaltrina Kelmendi, M.A., Ph.D.

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Intimate partner violence among university students in Kosovo and its correlates: exploring violence socialization and approval of violence

Intimate partner violence among university students in Kosovo and its correlates: exploring violence socialization and approval of violence

Abstract: Doctoral Thesis Abstract Doctoral Thesis Title: "Intimate partner violence among university students in Kosovo and its correlates: exploring violence socialization and approval of violence" Name and Surname: Kaltrina Kelmendi Worldwide research evidence on intimate partner violence (IPV) has increased recently, and shows that IPV is common among all age groups, but students are at particularly high risk for being engaged in partner violence in their intimate relationships. Research shows that prevalence rates of IPV among university range from 10% to 50%, ranging from 10% to 50% (Shook, Gerrity, Jurich & Segrist, 2000; Bryant & Spencer, 2003; Hines & Saudino, 2003; Straus, 2004; Amar & Gennaro, 2005; Kaukinen, Gover & Hartman, 2012; Barrick, Krebs & Lindquist, 2013). However, most of the studies conducted on IPV among college students were coming from US and western countries, and there is a lack of evidence on studies coming from non–western and developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to fill the gap to the existing evidence by examining the Kosovo student IPV perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological and sexual) and it correlates using the socio-ecological framework while testing the applicability of western models of intimate partner violence to diverse context to highlight similarities and differences. Besides, taking into account that Kosovo is postwar society and shows high rates domestic violence and tolerant attitudes toward violence (Farnsworth, Qosa-Mustafa, Banjska, Berisha, & Morina, 2015; UNICEF, 2015), the aim of the study was also to examine the association of IPV perpetration/ victimization with socialization of violence and approval of violence. The sequential explanatory mixed method design was used, were quantitative phase was used for collecting data on intimate partner violence perpetration/victimization (physical, psychological and sexual violence) and individual and relationship level correlates while focus group discussions were used for gathering data on socio-cultural correlates. Seven hundred students who have been in the heterosexual dating relationship in the past year completed the conflict tactic scales 2 (CTS-2: Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy & Sugarman, 1996) and Personal and Relationship Profile (PRP: Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy & Sugarman,2007). Afterward, 20 students (eleven females and nine males) were purposively recruited for the four focus group discussion to examine socio- cultural correlates and in-depth understanding of findings from the quantitative part of the students. Results from this study show that students perpetrate and experience high rates of IPV (physical, psychological and sexual violence). Specifically, physical violence (35.3% were victim compared to 42.1% who were perpetrators), psychological violence (60.1% victims vs. 66.4% perpetrators) and sexual violence (37.3% victims vs. 34.6% perpetrators). The majority of perpetrated and experienced acts of IPV for the three types of violence were minor, and most of the acts of IPV were mutual. Besides, male and female students reported approximately similar rates of physical and psychological perpetration/ victimization rates, whereas, statistically significant differences were noticed for sexual violence perpetration/ victimization were males showed higher rates. Moreover, findings from this study showed that males reported statistically significant higher rates of socialization and approval of violence compared to female students. Similarly, perpetrators and victims of IPV (physical, psychological and sexual violence) had higher rates of socialization of violence and showed greater tolerance toward intimate partner violence. Besides, findings indicate that approval of violence mediates the relationship between the socialization of violence and intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, providing evidence for intergenerational transmission of violence the

Abstract: ory and social –learning theory, previously not studied in this context. Furthermore, findings from this study show that several individual- level correlates (depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, borderline personality traits and stressful conditions), and relationship – level correlates (communication problems, conflict, jealousy, dominance and relationship commitment) jointly with socio-cultural correlates (changes in values and gender roles, tolerant attitudes toward violence and adherence to patriarchal norms) appeared to be significantly associated with IPV (physical, psychological and sexual violence) among university students, compatible with findings from other studies using the same measures and same samples of students. Besides, findings show that there is overlap between IPV victimization and perpetration correlates. Conclusively, findings from this study provide evidence for applicability of western models of IPV to diverse cultural settings. As such, they provide number of implications for prevention interventions suggesting a variety of both previously established and newest correlates that should be tackled when designing prevention intervention, including individual, relationship and socio-cultural correlates.

Keywords: Key words, Intimate partner violence, university students, perpetration and victimization, violence socialization and violence approval, mixed method study, ecological framework

Jazyk práce: angličtina

Obhajoba závěrečné práce

  • Obhajoba proběhla 29. 6. 2016
  • Vedoucí: doc. PhDr. František Baumgartner, CSc.
  • Oponent: PhDr. Veronika Anna Polišenská, Ph.D., Doc. PhDr. Gabriela Mikulášková, PhD.

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